Airplane turbulence: a pilot explains why you can relax

Fear of Flying School interview

The words ‘airplane’, ‘turbulence’ and ‘fear’ have a nasty habit of popping up in the same sentence.

But it turns out that airplane turbulence isn’t something you need to worry about.


Because turbulence DOES NOT represent a threat to your plane.

In fact, there are NO examples in recent decades of an airplane crashing thanks to turbulence.

So why do people hate it?

I think it’s because they don’t know what it is. And in the absence of FACTS, negative thoughts go unchallenged.

That’s why I invited retired Delta Airlines captain, Bill Watts, to join me for a chat.

Bill’s working on a project with Delta and the US Government’s National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to find better ways to spot and avoid turbulence (P.S. Don’t miss the interview I did with NCAR about air turbulence).

In this interview, Bill gives you the information you need to challenge your negative thoughts…

Tune in to my interview with Bill (or read the transcript below) and you’ll discover:

  • What turbulence is.
  • How it works at different altitudes.
  • Why it’s NOT a threat to your plane.
  • How to avoid injury when flying through it.
  • New systems for identifying and avoiding it.
  • And MUCH more.

Interview transcript


Tim Benjamin: Is turbulence one of the things you hate most about flying?

If so, check out today’s interview.

Hi – I’m Tim Benjamin with the Fear of Flying School podcast.

Today’s talk is with retired Delta Airlines Captain, Bill Watts.

Bill is representing Delta in a project the airline is working on with the US National Center for Atmospheric Research.

The aim of the project is to make it easier for pilots to spot – and avoid – turbulence.

And given that lots of you have emailed me to say you HATE turbulence with a passion, I figured it would be great to get Bill on to explain what it is.

And why you DON’T need to worry about it.

But, before we get into the interview, can I first ask you a big favour?

If you find this – or any of my other interviews – useful, I’d love it if you could spend 10 seconds jumping into iTunes to rate the Fear of Flying School podcast.

If you do, you’ll really be helping me out.

And you’ll be helping out other fearful fliers by making it easier for them to discover the Fear of Flying School podcast.

Now, if you don’t know how to rank a podcast on iTunes, simply visit Fear of Flying School dot com where you’ll find quick instructions on the page containing this interview.

It’s the page headlined ‘Why You Can Stop Hating Turbulence’.

OK – without further ado, here’s my interview about turbulence with Bill Watts…

Tim Benjamin: Today we’re going to be talking about turbulence and how it affects air travel.

Before we get going, I think it would be really useful for people who’re listening to this just to get a better understanding of the different kinds of turbulence.

Obviously some turbulence exists at low altitude – that’s the stuff that people feel just after the plane’s taken off or just before it lands.

And then there’s that other kind of turbulence, which exists up, at cruising altitude.

Can you just talk me through, to start with, what sort of turbulence people are likely to experience at low altitude?

Captain Bill Watts: Well, first of all, let me give just a little background on turbulence as a phenomenon.

Turbulence is merely a disturbance in a fluid called ‘air’ – similar to the waves in the ocean.

And many things can cause these disturbances.

And even though it appears to be mystical – because we can’t SEE the air movements – it’s similar to a sea-state – or even a bumpy road – which are easily observed.

But, to be more specific about the LOW altitude, in the lower atmosphere, typical causes of turbulence can be terrain disrupting a steady flow where air moves from high pressure to low pressure.

Just basic physics.

Tim Benjamin: And when you say ‘terrain’, what do you mean by that?

Captain Bill Watts: In other words, if we had a 20 knot wind and it’s going from the surface up to 10,000 feet.

And it’s flowing along.

And it has a mountain in front of it.

Or a mountain – say – that goes up to 4,000 feet.

That terrain will impact that airflow and cause it to be turbulent.

It would be much like if you had the ocean rolling over a breakway – say 100 yards from the shore.

So, it’s just an obstacle to the airflow.

And when the airflow hits that, it becomes turbulent.

Does that make sense?

Tim Benjamin: It DOES make sense.

What about airports which are not located near mountains?

I mean, they can get a bit bumpy at times as well, right?

Captain Bill Watts: Correct. And it doesn’t have to be just terrain.

It can be buildings.

It can be intersections of different airflows.

So, it’s ANYTHING that disrupts that airflow is what can cause us turbulence.

Just like – again I like to refer back to the ocean – because people can see how the ocean can be affected by either a rock formation or currents coming in from different directions.

So that the changes in speed AND direction – whatever the reason – whether it’s a mountain or a building or currents coming together – are caused by the differences either by these impacts of terrain.

Or it could be atmospheric pressure.


Or even the rotation of the Earth.

And that rotation of the Earth causes a frictional affect on the wind.

So, all those things can impact that flow.

And if there’s no clouds associated with this disturbance, we call it ‘clear-air’ turbulence.

Or nickname is ‘CAT’.

Convectively – convective activity – like thunderstorms, or cumulus fluffy clouds, can also create turbulence.

In other words, these flows that are created, create these clouds and moisture.

And when they are associated with this convective activity – we call that ‘convectively induced turbulence’ – or ‘CIT’.

So, lots of things can affect that flow.

The ‘turbulence’ is just another name for that flow being disrupted.

Tim Benjamin: So that’s turbulence at LOW altitude. What kind of turbulence is typically encountered at cruising altitude?

Well, generally, turbulence at cruising altitude is very similar to the low altitude forms of turbulence.

The differences are caused by just different phenomena.

For instance, at the higher altitudes we have the jet stream, which most people are familiar with.

And that’s just a very high volume of air and high velocity of air – sometimes up to 150 knots – found at the higher altitudes.

And I won’t go into all the causes of the jet stream but most people are at least familiar with the jet stream.

So, that’s one factor in the higher altitudes you don’t see at the lower altitudes.

Another is the convective activity which we talked about earlier associated with thunderstorms. Build up to quite high altitudes – sometimes 40 or 50 thousand feet.

And all that convective activity – or airflow within that thunderstorm – creates a lot of disruptions in the atmosphere at the higher altitudes.

Sometimes as far as – I don’t know – 50 to 100 kilometres away from the thunderstorm itself.

So, the net effect is essentially the same – they’re just disruptions in the air flow as described for the lower altitudes.

And we still talk about the CAT and the CIT – or convectively-induced turbulence – and clear-air turbulence in the upper atmosphere.

So, it’s just – I guess – the cause and effect are slightly different – but the NET effect is the same.

It’s just a disruption in the fluid.

And it becomes somewhat mysterious because people don’t see the effects of air because it’s invisible.

Tim Benjamin: Well, if they COULD see, what WOULD they see?

Captain Bill Watts: I’m sorry – say again?

Tim Benjamin: Sorry – if they could ACTUALLY see turbulence, what would they be looking at?

Captain Bill Watts: Well, very much like the ocean currents.

If you stand on the sea shore and watch the ocean roll in and the waves break, or if you drop a rock in a pond somewhere, you’ll see the ripples of that disruption go away from the rock.

If you have a sea wall that’s, maybe, 100 meters off the shore, then you can see the waves break over that and the disruption of those waves.

And if you stand in those waves, you can feel the effect of it as well.

So, it’s just another body of fluid that you cannot see, but if you watch the ocean, you have a similar phenomenon.

Tim Benjamin: On that point, people often talk about planes hitting ‘air pockets’.

Is there such a thing as an ‘air pocket’?

Captain Bill Watts: Not really.

‘Air pocket’ implies a vacuum.

And there’s really not a vacuum out there.

It’s more like, going back to the oceanic waves that cause the airplane to move up and down.

So, typically there’s not a whole lot of up and down movements with LOWER levels of turbulence.

But even with that, people are affected by that.

And even with the heavy turbulence, the VERTICAL movements of the aircraft are usually in – I don’t know – less than 10 feet or so.

The MAIN point is that when you’re sitting inside of a ‘closed system’ – like the cabin of an aircraft – movement seems to be exaggerated.

Especially if someone is apprehensive.

And I can assure you that people experience more radical movements in other areas of their life.

Like riding in a boat.

Riding in a vehicle off the highway.

Or on an amusement ride.

So, it’s more the ‘closed’ system – and the apprehension I think – that creates that effect.

VERY seldom do you have a large-scale movement of the airplane.

And then, it’s not really a safety factor as much as it’s an apprehensive factor.

Tim Benjamin: If we talk about how long an episode of turbulence typically lasts for, I mean, is there a kind of rule of thumb?

Captain Bill Watts: Well, typically, the duration of the episode is very short for the heavier turbulence.

It’s kind of like the wave that we talked about that you might see as a surfer.

Oftentimes a surfer will ride a wave for a fairly good distance.

And then, when it breaks, it’s fairly dramatic.

But for the heavier turbulence, it doesn’t last very long.

But for the LIGHTER turbulence, it’s kind of like if you looked at a stream going over some rocks.

And if those rocks existed for a long distance, then you could have that turbulent flow across the stream for quite a long time.

So, you know, when you talk about lighter forms, they can last for a number of minutes.

And again, it just depends on the circumstances.

Often at these lower levels of turbulence, the experienced traveller almost finds it easier to sleep with the rhythmic movement of the aircraft.

I know a fearful flier may not be able to do that.

But it is kind of interesting that some travellers are not affected by that at all.

Tim Benjamin: It’s interesting that point about lower level turbulence versus cruise level turbulence.

I mean – does it tend to last longer or shorter depending on the altitude?

Captain Bill Watts: Not necessarily.

Again, we talk about the higher altitudes – being above 30,000 feet.

Sometimes, depending on the weather phenomena, it could last for a longer period of time.

But, again, these levels – from a safety standpoint – are fairly light.

Tim Benjamin: Now, we talked a moment ago about how – particularly for nervous fliers – the plane can sometimes feel like it’s shaking a bit too much.

And, perhaps, for a little too long.

What’s the impact on the airframe of the plane of turbulence?

Captain Bill Watts: Well, like any object in motion, the aircraft follows the laws of Newton.

And this means the aircraft is like a ship in the ocean.

But we cannot see the air that the aircraft navigates through.

As turbulence is created, the aircraft rides through the waves, much like a boat.

Unlike a ship, that could be swamped with water, the aircraft is enclosed – and has much more ability to move around in its fluid without any concern of taking on water, if you will.

Or taking on air.

So, it’s a VERY solid structure.

It’s built to EXTREME safety standards.

And if you look at all the statistics, you’ll see that it’s just VERY rare that an aircraft is affected by it – these acts of turbulence.

So, I think it goes back to the apprehensive flyer sort of exaggerating in their mind what’s really happening to the airplane.

But I can assure you that the airplane can withstand much more than you will EVER experience.

Tim Benjamin: And so what should people think when they see the wings bouncing around?

Captain Bill Watts: Well, you would HOPE that they would bounce around because a RIGID structure can break more quickly than a dynamic structure.

If you’ve ever looked at a very tall building, they’re DESIGNED, structurally, to sway.

And that’s the same thing with an aircraft wing.

It’s DESIGNED to bend and flex with the movement of the airplane and the lift that’s created by the airplane.

So, movement of the wing is actually designed into the structure.

Tim Benjamin: OK – so that’s the airframe.

What about the engines?

Are they affected at all by turbulence?

Captain Bill Watts: The engines are minimally affected by slight disruptions in air flow.

And that’s all turbulence is.

Since they’re designed to such high safety standards, again.

The engine is designed to withstand the ingestion of large birds – again – for certification.

And I assure you that a large bird will create MUCH more of a disruption of an airflow through the engine than any turbulence.

Tim Benjamin: So, that’s the engine.

What about the interior of the aircraft?

Any issues there that people should be worrying about – or not worrying about?

Captain Bill Watts: Well, the aircraft interior is just an integral part of the total airframe – moving in conjunction with the aircraft.

The main thing is that you want to be strapped in – meaning having your seatbelt on, the flight attendants seated and all loose objects are restrained.

In other words, the overhead bins are closed.

And people hold on to their iPad or tablet, so to speak – if you were getting some VERY heavy turbulence.

Tim Benjamin: And what about the squeaking?

Sometimes, if the plane is moving around – and this is true on the ground as well actually – sometimes the bins, the overhead bins, squeak a bit.

And some of the other bits of furnishing just sort of rub up against each other and squeak a bit.

Is that something to be concerned about?

Captain Bill Watts: Not at all.

Again, the aircraft has been designed to withstand all these different movements and motions from takeoff to landing.

And the safety factors built-into an aircraft are INCREDIBLE.

If you’ve been involved in the design of aircraft you would be AMAZED at the safety that’s built into it.

Tim Benjamin: OK – so we’ve talked about what turbulence is. We’ve talked about what how aircraft are designed to handle it.

What I’m keen to talk to you about now is how people involved in aviation – whether that’s pilots, air traffic control, etc go about minimizing exposure to turbulence in the first place.

And I guess the first question is: are there certain kinds of turbulence that you try to minimize exposure to?

Captain Bill Watts: Well, first of all, we might want to talk a little bit about how turbulence can cause the injury.

And if it’s strong enough to move the airframe around, it can make it difficult for people to walk around the cabin.

And a person could fall and have a resulting injury – just like people can be walking along on a sidewalk and step-off the curb and trip.

Same thing can happen on an airplane.

The heavier levels of turbulence can cause items to move about the cabin.

But two important things need to be noted.

First, these levels of turbulence statistically seldom occur.

Secondly, if everyone is seated with a seatbelt secure as we talked earlier – and all objects are stowed – it’s virtually IMPOSSIBLE to have an injury in this scenario.

But back to your other question, it is important for the airline to provide the best experience to the customer that’s possible.

So, the air traffic controllers, the dispatchers and the pilots – and the community as a whole – typically tries to minimize the exposure to the heavier levels of turbulence – sometimes called ‘moderate’ turbulence or greater.

And, as mentioned, this level of turbulence is NOT common and usually can be avoided.

However, even when it is encountered, if everyone is properly secured and followed the steps that we talked about earlier, then it’s pretty impossible to hurt anybody.

We estimate that well over 95% of all turbulence is ‘light’ – or less.

The airline and crews try to balance the passenger experience by minimizing turbulence.

But not to the point of avoiding ALL turbulence – which might require delays or even making an extra stop on the flight for additional fuel.

So, I think most people would be willing to tolerate light turbulence as opposed to flying at such a low altitude that they would have to have a two hour stop somewhere in-between to get additional fuel.

Tim Benjamin: And, presumably, that explains why often – you know – one will board a plane and one of the pilots will come onto the public address system before takeoff and say ‘Look, it’s going to get a little bumpy or a little choppy just after we take off’.

Because I know that for people who hate turbulence, they hear that and think ‘Oh – WHY are we taking off when we know it’s going to be a bit bumpy?’.

Captain Bill Watts: Yeah – and the reason is that – would you prefer to delay the flight for five hours?

You might have a different reaction from the rest of the passengers! [laughs].

‘You’re going to DELAY my flight for FIVE hours? When it’s NOT unsafe?’.

Tim Benjamin: Just looking at what pilots do when they do encounter turbulence, what’s the scene in the cockpit typically?

Because – again – for people who’re terrified of flying, in their own minds, there are all sorts of terrible thoughts happening.

What are pilots thinking when the plane encounters some turbulence?

Captain Bill Watts: Well, that relates to the previous question about do we operate in turbulence?

Yes we do.

Weather is ALWAYS a factor in flying.

And it’s important to note that we never fly in any situations we deem unsafe.

The aircraft is certified to withstand a LOT more stress than is seen in any normal operation.

And an aircraft is certified to fly up to the specific cross-wind limits.

And the crews are TRAINED to these limits.

Often a crew might land or takeoff in gusty winds but both the crew AND the plane are well within the limits of regulatory requirements.

And these regulatory requirements are strictly monitored by government agencies.

A passenger might see a storm in the vicinity of the airplane, but the crew maintains a minimum distance depending on the level of storm was to the associated turbulence.

These operations are safe, are operating within prescribed guidelines.

And if the airline did NOT use these guidelines, the aircraft could be delayed or even diverted to another airport like we talked about earlier.

This would create significant disruptions to the passengers and, therefore, impact the customer experience in other areas.

So, like anything in life, there’s always a balance of what the goals are.

Tim Benjamin: Presumably, then, that kind of scene in the cockpit itself when the plane is bumping around a bit is a fairly calm and ordered and planned one.

Is that right?

Captain Bill Watts: Absolutely – I mean – a pilot is always aware of the conditions around him and he has VERY strict guidelines as to how to deal with those contingencies – whether it be turbulence or [?] weather or factors.

Tim Benjamin: So, we’ve talked about the cockpit.

What about the cabin crew?

What do they do when it gets a bit bumpy?

Captain Bill Watts: Well, the cabin crew is trying to manage that cabin.

And it’s a joint effort with the cockpit and the cabin crew.

They constantly coordinate with each other on how to manage the cabin.

When I say ‘manage the cabin’, it’s based on the level of the turbulence.

If the turbulence is at a low level, the captain will ask the passengers to stay in their seats with the seatbelts on while the flight attendants continue the service – because they have years of experience of moving about the cabin with lower levels of turbulence.

If the turbulence reaches a certain level, the captain will tell the passengers to stay in their seats – with seat belts on – and the flight attendants to stow their equipment while taking THEIR seats – also securing their seatbelts.

So, it’s a constant coordination between the cabin and the cockpit at achieving the goals of the flight.

Tim Benjamin: We’ve been talking up until now about how everybody involved with aviation deals with turbulence.

What’s the future of forecasting for turbulence?

And I ask that question because I know that you’re deeply involved with a project at the moment looking at ways in which it can be improved.

Captain Bill Watts: Yes – the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which I think is the organisation you talked with before, they’re working with agencies around the world.

And they’ve developed some very important products to help improve how we identify turbulence.

The first one is a system for inferring and reporting turbulence encountered by commercial transport aircraft from what we call ‘on-board flight sensors’.

And these are just sensors that record movement of the aircraft.

In the past, this system relied on subjective pilot reports that could be inaccurate in intensity and location.

And then the second tool is a forecast model that is updated every hour and it runs on a super-computer and it takes the objective reports off the aircraft that we talked about previously.

And it constantly improves the accuracy of the model.

These tools are accessible to the airline dispatchers and the meteorologists.

But they’re sometimes difficult to transmit to the cockpit in a timely manner – depending on the events surrounding the flight.

So, the joint FAA and Delta demo which is using the NCAR product allows a small test group of pilots to use the wifi on the aircraft to get access to real-time data on a website to better manage the cabin with more timely and accurate information that supplements the existing sources.

NCAR is constantly improving their models using other data sources to include satellite, ground-based [?] radar.

They’re also working with other agencies around the world to improve the methodologies for predicting turbulence.

And trying to encourage other airlines to embrace the new reporting technologies.

So, there’s a lot of exciting stuff going on right now.

Tim Benjamin: And will those technologies benefit passengers directly?

Captain Bill Watts: Oh – absolutely – because we’ll be able to better predict and report the turbulence.

And, as a result, we can better manage the cabin AND allow the passengers to know what the expectations are.

Which brings up another point.

We’ve done some informal surveys, and we’ve found that if a passenger KNOWS that he’s going to experience turbulence – and you tell him it’s gonna be ‘light’ turbulence for 15 minutes and we’re gonna turn the seatbelt on, they seem to be comfortable with that approach.

But, if they’re flying along and unexpectedly encounter turbulence, it makes them more nervous because they didn’t expect it.

Tim Benjamin: Bill – this has been a fascinating discussion.

And I’m sure anyone listening to this will find it ENOURMOUSLY re-assuring – what you’ve had to say.

That really brings us to the end of this which means it’s left simply for me to thank you very much for joining me on the Fear of Flying School podcast today.

Captain Bill Watts: It was my pleasure.

More help with turbulence…

Now that Captain Bill Watts has explained what turbulence is, I recommend you do two things right now

Thing #1: check out my revealing interview with the US government’s top turbulence experts.

Thing #2: learn how to apply your understanding of turbulence to STOP negative thoughts screwing with your head. How?

By downloading your FREE copy of my new eGuide, Trapped: Why You Fear Being Stuck On A Plane – And What To Do About It.

It’s packed with practical techniques you can start using TODAY (including the 3 vital steps to controlling a panic attack).

Once you’ve read it, you’ll know how to INSTANTLY manage your negative thoughts about turbulence (and become as bored by it as everyone else).

Here’s what people who’ve read my free guide are saying about it…

Thank you for making this guide. I’m really glad I found it.” – Lauren.

Once I read what you had to say, I started to laugh in relief. Finally, someone understood.” – David.

Your base of information is awesome, thank you.” – Paul.

Thank you for putting such a valuable resource out there!” – Lisa.

To get your FREE copy instantly, click here.

Leave a comment


  1. Katerina

    Thanks a lot for building this site. It’s very helpful!
    Perhaps you’ve covered it elsewhere, but my fear of flying has been way more once I had a baby. So one topic that concerns me is of course flying with a baby or a toddler. Especially those that are just 2-3 years old. It’s extremely hard to keep them in their own seat either at take off or landing, but also during turbulence. So could you cover this topic – how dangerous is it really? And how to minimize the risks (while understanding the dynamics of having a very active toddler)? Thanks

    1. Tim Benjamin

      Hey Katerina – I’m glad you’re finding this stuff useful 🙂

      It’s fascinating to hear that your fear of flying became more intense once you had a baby. I wonder if other people have experienced the same thing? Or the exact opposite?

      Anyone else got something to add to Katerina’s experience?


      1. Sneha

        Yes, my fear of flying has increased exponentially after my second pregnancy. I was traveling from Delhi to Pune in India and the plane faced extreme turbulence and since then I have developed an extreme anxiety of turbulence and I feel because of that I am even more aware of minor turbulences and sweat every time. Tomorrow getting ready for a flight to Vegas and just read that the weather is bad and windy so I was googling about flying anxiety to calm myself down. Thank you for this write up. It does put things in perspective.

    2. Christi

      I have flown my entire life and came to grips with my fear of flying during my teenage years. However, after my first baby the fears came back. Now my third baby is 3 months old and we’re flying in 3 days, and my fear and anxiety is almost unmanageable! But after reading this interview and other articles of yours, I feel a little bit more relaxed. So yes, after having babies my anxieties worsened, not with the management of the kids but in the safety of the flight and dealing with turbulence. The last time I flew they attempted a landing in tornadic weather at Memphis before diverting to Nashville after horrendous turbulence, and I was utterly terrified and found it traumatic. But I’m sure this time will be fine. Thanks for the helpful article; I’ll be reading it again before our flight.

  2. Geoff Chuks

    I love the interview as it was refreshing and reassuring. I get particularly agitated even when turbulence was being envisaged and announcement made either prior to take off or during flight. Right now even out of flight I feel more confident and relaxed knowing that turbulence is rarely a source of disaster.

    1. Tim Benjamin

      Hey Geoff – it’s great to hear you’re finding this stuff useful. Happy flying 🙂

  3. Sue

    I found the interview very reassuring and has put my mind at rest …. For now. I have just got back from Bermuda today, the flight was relatively anxiety free on this trip. I agree with a section of the interview in that it’s so more preferable to hear an announcement made prior to turbulence rather than when there is none. I think that there is a common fear about today’s terrorist attacks and that in itself sets the anxiety deeper and so on to fuelling the imagination that leads to a feeling of panic and a fear of losing self control. I have personally made leaps and bounds in rationalising my fear of flying, but in today’s society some sad news will resurrect those fears to teeter on the edge once more.

    1. Tim Benjamin

      Thanks for your great points, Sue. That’s why I stopped consuming news – it’s designed to scare you (because people are attracted to bad news – and more people equals more advertising revenue for the news organization).

  4. Maher

    Thank you so much for this fascinating material and the clarity of the explanations. The style of questioning has dealt with considerable amount of unexoressable fear of nervous fliers. Well done and thank you

    1. Tim Benjamin

      No problem Maher – glad to hear you found it useful.

  5. Luciano Alvarado Jr

    Thank you for this interview! It was great and reassuring for those of us that have fear of turbulence when we fly. This gives me a better understanding of it and makes me feel more relaxed about it now.

    1. Tim Benjamin

      No problem Luciano – I’m glad to hear you found it useful 🙂

  6. Fred Mulinda

    Thanks for the great insights. What about the chances of engines ripping off during turbulence? That’s always my worst fear.

      1. Fred Mulinda

        Ok Tim. I can’t wait for the answer. In fact, what gets me even more scared is seeing such a heavy stuff (the engine) hanging on probably the plane’s lightest part (the wing).

      2. Tim Benjamin

        Hey Fred – surprisingly, the wing is actually super strong. Not only does it happily handle the weight of the engines, it also stores most of the fuel 🙂

  7. farha

    Thanks a lot this site is very useful – but I still get panic attacks when my flight is above the ocean. I feel that my plane will sink in the water without breaking and all of us will be shouting in this enclosed capsule or plane.

    1. Tim Benjamin

      Hey Farha – next time you’re flying over the sea, ask yourself whether you’re safe RIGHT NOW. If the answer is yes, give yourself permission to enjoy that moment of safety. Keep asking yourself this question EVERY time you start feeling panicky.

    2. CoolerPlays

      Honestly the safest place to fly over is huge bodies amount of water like the ocean. You would be surprised how long it will take for the entire plane to sink. If somehow you do crash in the ocean, everyone will have enough time to get out and climb the plane (dangers of sharks) or you can use the emergency escape slides as a boat which works too. If you have a fear of being stuck in the middle of the ocean that is also not to worry about because at airports there are special towers to keep track of all the airplanes making sure one does not crash into the other, weather warnings like storm, etc… They can easily pinpoint your exact location where you crashed. This was just to ease your mind about crashing in huge bodies of waters, it is not as scary as it sounds and the plane won’t go under water as easy as you think.

  8. K. Pasupathi

    Hi… This is really useful…. I enjoyed my first 100 flights. But during one flight, it felt like we dropped 100ft in a fraction of second. I thought there must have been damage to the aircraft structure /wings. But nothing happened to the aircraft. In fact, I flew the next leg of my journey on the same plane. But after that incident, I used to get a little fearful during turbulence. Now, from your interview, I am clear about how turbulence works. Thankyou so much.

    1. Tim Benjamin

      Glad you found the interview useful. As you now know, although it can FEEL like your plane is dropping a long way, in reality it’s usually only moving up and down by a few centimeters.

  9. Tina

    This information was very helpful. I recently flew from Chicago to Las Vegas and it was extremely turbulent during landing but the pilot talked us through it which calmed everyone’s nerves , he even said there’s nothing to worry about..if it were dangerous we wouldn’t be doing it. I happened to be sitting next to a pilot who gave the exact information you did…thanks again

    1. Tim Benjamin

      Hi Tina – great to hear that your pilot kept you informed as to what was happening (and why it was safe). Thanks for sharing your story 🙂

  10. Matt P

    Great interview. I fly 150,000 KM a year and I still dread turbulence, even minor turbulence. Interviews and articles like this help me to better prepare for my next flight and I appreciate the information you provide. What’s funny for me is that turbulence doesn’t bother me during the take off or landing, just at cruising altitude. I haven’t seen many posters experiencing the same. Thanks again!

    1. Surohan

      I agree with you, Matt. I am usually OK with take offs and landings, as I guess that I am expecting it. But to have a sudden lurch in the middle of a smooth flight is really scary to me, and because of that, I am waiting for it to happen the entire trip. And that gets pretty tiring when you are flying across the ocean for ten hours or so!

    2. Teresa

      Me too!!! That’s my worst moment in a plane–the turbulence at cruising altitude. I actually love landings. Take-off and cruising is bad for me, so that’s the vast majority of the flight.

  11. Karen hunter

    I rarely fly but when I have to fly I get very very nervous. I try to read, look at a movie or even sleep but when we hit turbulence it consumes me and I just want to scream!!!! But when the flight is over I’m exhausted because of being so tense. Reading your article about turbulence helped me understand what turbulence is and reading that it is basically airflow disturbance made me have a better sense of why it makes the plane jerk around like it does. I live 20 minutes from a major airport and airplanes fly over my house constantly day and night. I love watching them fly and land but never loved flying!!! Now that I read this article on my next flight , my fears will be somewhat subsided.

  12. Katya

    Dear Tim,
    Thank you for this site and for the useful information. I have never had issues with flying until, as one of your readers said, I had children and the fear of flying intensifies once I experienced a panic attack about a year ago. Since then it has been very difficult to fly. My fear is associated with not only natural things that can happen to the plane but with terrorism… The recent events of the German pilot flying the plane into the mountain did not help either… How do I know who is in the cockpit??
    Do you ever cover such topics? My apologies if I missed it.
    Thank you in advance for your time!

  13. Remi

    Great interview Tim…it has really done a lot to calm my fears during flights.I work in West Africa and live in Canada so i get to make that commute twice every other month.Thanks again for allaying my fears.

  14. Charles

    I appreciate this insightful and nerve calming interview about flight turbulence. Thanks so much Tim for making it available.

    1. Tim Benjamin

      No problem Charles – I’m glad you’ve found it useful.

  15. Maria

    Thank you so much for this post. I got fear of flying only in the last year after a very scary turbulence on a flight back to the UK from the Carribien. Same as Matt I also only get scared when cruising, and deffinetly the most calming thing is hearing the pilot speak and explaining what is happening.

  16. Kate

    This interview was amazing and has really cleared up a lot of questions I had about turbulence, I randomly became quite a nervous flyer out of the blue, I still travel frequently on aroplanes and I try to just relax and enjoy the flight, overthinking is my problem so I just try to distract myself when I start overthinking, the one thing I can’t stand is take off and turbulence when at cruising speed, Landing I don’t mind because we are on our way down! I find when the captain explains what’s happening it puts me at ease, just the sound of him/her being so calm. Thank you for such an interesting interview

  17. Bita. k

    Thanks for the information. I used to get nervous during flight when there was turbulence. But now that I know the reasons for it, I hope I can manage my fear.

  18. Sue Stanek

    I cannot stand turbulence! I get so fearful and it is my mind that imagines the worst. Then I get scared when pilots instruct the flight attendants to sit down. It really freaks me out. It helps to read about what it is but when I’m in the air, feeling those bumps, I feel like balling like a baby.

  19. Prakash Sharma

    Very useful. I have this serious phobia about turbulence while flying. Hope it will help. Not sure. Because when we are not flying and reason everything looks ok. But during flying you forget all logic.

  20. Oskar

    I’m currently doing my CPL and my great fear of turbulance if holding my progression in the course. My Instructor tells me I’m a great pilot when it’s a reasonably calm day but when we have turbulance he doesn’t recognise my. I just switch of from flying the plane to worry about the turbulance….

  21. RAo , R K

    Thanks for u quite useful and knowledgeable insight about turbulence. I am frequent flier app 10-12 takeoff’s and landing per month averaging about 3 to 8 hours of flight . And I do become nervous and unfortunately have developed a fear about it . Slight turbulence also create apprehensions and to help
    Myself cycologically , I imagine myself driving a Car on a bumby road . Though I have moderate to few severe experiences , I still keep flying as it’s part of my job . But I would like ask one question. ” if intensity of the turbulence differs from small to big ( wide bodies ) aircrafts and also at diff heights ???

  22. Alison Carruthers

    Thank you for the explanations surrounding turbulence. I’m due to fly tomorrow and the wind speeds in the forecast sound scary!! I hope I remember all I heard today about planes coping in these conditions. Just hope this nervous flier copes as well!!

  23. Scott A.

    Thank you so much for your FEAR OF FLYING SCHOOL. Im flying to Florida from southern CA this coming Thursday and have been in agony just thinking about the plane flight. Your school is helping out a lot. Thank you Tim!!!

    1. Tim Benjamin

      Hey Scott – great to hear you’re finding this stuff useful 🙂

  24. Dudz

    Flight back home from Belfast to London tomorrow. Shitting myself as usual. Although, after reading this I feel a bit better. Cheers lads.

  25. Shivam

    Very very helpful. Loved reading this.

  26. Stephanie Zhao

    Thank you for this posting. As I am getting older. I get more nervous flying especially when I had to fly my little one. I have more responsibilities and needed to stay calmer. It was good to know how turbulence works, so next time when the flight gets bumpy, I will be able to stay calmer in front of my little one, if necessary I will be able to explain to her. Last time we flew to China had a very severe turbulence, feeling a sudden falling when we were decending. I was frightened and started to pray, but my two old daughter looked at me and said:” That was fun mom!”

  27. Helen Leighfield

    I’ve always dreaded flying because of the clear air turbulence usually coming back from the States. Always happens a couple of hours into the flight and makes me so anxious. I end up with my heart racing and I just can’t settle. I’m ok going …. Hopefully now I know what it is…I will be fine in Oct when we go to Orlando. Or should I say when I come back. I think I would feel better sitting with the pilots ..ha ha thanks for this informative piece.

  28. Tiffany

    I hate flying. The fear just started a few years ago. I never had a problem before. The anxiety is worse when I know the weather isn’t great. We have family across the country (thankfully not in another country, I don’t know if I could handle that long of a flight!!) We’ve been visiting often & I feel like my fear gets worse & worse. This was super super helpful!! Glad I found it! Really helped take the edge off. Thank you!!

  29. Josh Hustad

    Not a huge fan of flying in general but do okay. I have an incoming flight from Atlanta to Johannesburg, SA. Any tips on long range flights? Looking at 15hrs +

  30. Akoru

    I have missed to go places just because of fear of flying! Now, I will confidently go places, but sweat! And dry mouth! Thanks for your comprehensive explanations!

  31. Rama Rao

    Its an informative article and clarifies several questions on air turbulence and associated fear. Thanks for putting this article and it will certainly help me improve my air travel experience.

  32. Cat

    Thanks for this write up! I am one of those nervous flyers. What is bad weather for planes to have accidents??

  33. Vishnu Bari

    This podcast was very helpful. Thanks for sharing this information to the general public.

  34. Elena

    Excellent interview, you have brought the idea of terbulance into perspective. I am armed with facts about turbulence which makes it less emotional which decreases my anxieties of flying in turbulence. I will read the interview many more times. Many thanks for sharing your expertise about turbulence. Elena ✈️

  35. Pallone

    Thaaaaaankyou!!!!! So much

  36. Alex

    Hi Tim,

    I found your website today after an anxiety attack came on just thinking about flying next weekend. This interview was great, the calmness when talking about has settled me so thank you so much for sharing.

    I suffer badly from motion sickness and my fear is very much about falling and that awful lurch in the stomach. Do you have any tips on how to talk myself out of the fear that the plane is going to drop suddenly? I find landing the biggest challenge and am often in tears on the approach to the runway.

    Thanks 🙂

  37. Karen

    Thank you so much for all of the information! You’ve helped to put me at ease.

  38. Anne Acharya

    Hi,I’m Anne from India.Recently I flew to Perth.W.A by Singapore airlines. I was so frigtend ,I thought I’m going to die with all that turbulence but I must say, the smiling faces of the airhosostess and the expert flying of the pilots gave me a lot of strength…yes of course I kept praying too.Today after reading your documents about turbulence and how not to be afraid of the same, Sir,I will surely fly again.Thank you for you encouraging and reassuring words.God bless….lolove.

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